PMI ITTOs

The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of the 42 PMI processes.

Misc Study Notes:

  1. The inputs and outputs are often artifacts of the project such as documents where the tools and techniques are often methods, like brainstorming.
  2. The inputs to processes are often the outputs of previous processes.
  3. Since the enterprise environmental factors and organizational process assets are generally different for each process, these are abbreviated and then detailed in each occurrence.
  4. To help derive (vs. memorize) EFFs, answer the question, “What intangibles will influence this process?” Examples: culture, marketplace, and industry standards.
  5. To help derive (vs. memorize) OPAs, answer the question, “What resources can assist this process?” Examples: templates, same documents from previous projects, and lessons learned database.
  6. I’ve drafted writing templates for learning and self-testing the ITTOs.  It indicates the number of each items needed for each ITTO of all the 42 processes as a hint while learning and writing them.  They are arranged by knowledge area, since that is how most people learn them.  The PDF is available here.  a previous breakout by process flow is here.  A still older version is here.

Use the first table to practice writing in the ITTOs of any PMI process. Scroll down for the completed ITTO tables.

Process:

Input Tools & Techniques Output

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Develop Project Charter
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project statement of work Expert judgment Project charter
Business case
Contract (if third party project)
EEF: government/industry standards, organizational infrastructure, marketplace conditions
OPA: Org’s standard processes, policies, definitions, templates, historical info and lessons learned
Identify Stakeholders
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project Charter Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder register
Procurement Documents Expert judgment Stakeholder management strategy
EEF: Company Culture, structure, government and industry standards
OPA: Stakeholder register templates, previous stakeholder registers, lessons learned
Develop Project Management Plan
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project charter Expert judgment Project management plan
Planning process outputs
EEF: Government/industry standards, org structure/infrastructure/culture, project management system
OPA: Standardized guidelines, proposal/performance eval criteria, PMP templates, closure templates, change control procedures, previous project docs like calendars, registers, and baselines.
Collect Requirements
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project charter Interviews Requirements documentation
Stakeholder register Focus groups Requirements management plan
Facilitated workshops Requirements traceability matrix
Group creativity techniques: brainstorming, nominal group technique, Delphi technique, idea/mind mapping, affinity diagram.
Group decision making techniques: unanimity, majority, plurality, dictatorship
Questionnaires and surveys
Observations
Prototypes
Define Scope
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project charter Expert judgment Project scope statement
Requirements documentation Product analysis Project document updates
OPA: Scope statement policies, procedures and templates. Previous project files and lessons learned. Alternatives identification
Facilitated workshops
Create WBS
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project scope statement Decomposition WBS
Requirements documentation WBS dictionary
OPA: WBS policies, procedures, and templates. Previous project files, lessons learned Scope baseline
Project document updates
Define Activities
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Scope baseline (WBS, WBS dictionary, and Project Scope Statement) Decomposition Activity list
EEF: PMIS (project management information system) Rolling wave planning Activity attributes
OPA: activity planning related policies, procedures, guidelines. e.g. the scheduling methodology. Templates Milestone list
Expert judgment
Sequence Activities
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Activity list Dependency determination Project schedule network diagrams
Activity attributes Precedence diagramming method (PDM) Project document updates
Milestone list Applying leads and lags
Project scope statement Schedule network templates
OPA: e.g. scheduling methodology files, previous project network diagrams
Estimate Activity Resources
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Activity list Expert judgment Activity resource requirements
Activity attributes Alternatives analysis Resource breakdown structure
Resource calendars Published estimating data Project document updates
EEF: e.g. resource availability and skills Bottom-up estimating
OPA: Policies and procedures for staffing, renting and purchasing, historical resource usage information Project management software
Estimate Activity Durations
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Activity list Expert judgment Activity duration estimates
Activity attributes Analogous estimating (top down) Project document updates
Activity resource requirements Parametric estimating (plotted forecasts)
Resource calendars Three-point estimating (PERT)
Project scope statement Reserve analysis
EEF: Reference data, e.g. duration estimating databases, productivity metrics, published commercial information
OPA: historical duration information, project calendars, scheduling methodology and lessons learned.
Develop Schedule
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Activity list Schedule network analysis Project schedule
Activity attributes Critical path method Schedule baseline
Project schedule network diagram Critical chain method Schedule data
Activity resource requirements Resource leveling Project document updates
Activity duration estimates Scheduling tool
Resource calendars What-if scenario analysis
Project scope statement Applying leads and lags
EEF: e.g., a company’s scheduling tool Schedule compression
OPA: Scheduling methodology and project calendar
Estimate Costs
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Scope baseline Expert judgment Activity cost estimates
Project schedule Analogous estimating Basis of estimates
Human resource plan Parametric estimating Project document updates
Risk register Bottom-up estimating
EEF: Market conditions, published commercial information Three-point estimates
OPA: cost estimating policies and templates, historical information and lessons learned Reserve analysis
Cost of quality
Project management estimating software
Vendor bid analysis
Determine Budget
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Activity cost estimates Cost aggregation Cost performance baseline
Basis of estimates Reserve analysis Project funding requirements
Scope baseline Expert judgment Project document updates
Project schedule Historical relationships
Resource calendars Funding limit reconciliation
Contracts
OPA: cost budgeting related policies, procedures, and guidelines. Cost budgeting tools, reporting methods
Plan Quality
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Scope baseline Cost-benefit analysis Quality management plan
Stakeholder register Cost of quality Quality metrics
Cost performance baseline Control charts Quality checklists
Schedule baseline Benchmarking Process improvement plan
Risk register Design of experiments Project document updates
EEF: Associated rules, standards, and guidelines. Government agency regulations. Product’s working / operating conditions. Statistical sampling
OPA: Organizational quality policies, procedures, and guidelines, historical databases, lessons learned, quality policy (either an endorsed as-is policy or one created by the PM and communicated to stakeholders.) Flowcharting
Proprietary quality management methodologies (e.g. Six Sigma)
Additional quality planning tools (Group decision techniques, matrices, ..)
Develop Human Resources Plan
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Activity resource requirements Org charts and position descriptions Human resources plan:  roles and responsibilities, org charts and staffing management plan: resource calendars, acquisition and release, recognition and rewards, safety, compliance and training.
EEF: Company culture, organization, HR, personnel policies, market Networking
OPA: org chart templates, historical project org info, standard processes and roles descriptions Organizational theory
Plan Communications
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Stakeholder register Communication requirements analysis Communications management plan
Stakeholder management strategy Communication technology Project document updates
EEF: All the other EEF are used here Communication models: components are encoding, message/feedback, medium, noise, and decoding
OPA: Lessons learned and historical info from previous projects, as well as all other OPAs. Communication methods: push, pull and interactive
Plan Risk Management
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project scope statement Planning meetings and analysis Risk management plan
Cost management plan
Schedule management plan
Communications management plan
EEF: risk attitudes and tolerances
OPA: stakeholder registers, risk categories, common definitions, templates
Identify Risks
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Risk management plan Documentation reviews Risk register
Activity cost estimates Information gathering techniques
Activity duration estimates Checklist analysis
Scope baseline Assumptions analysis
Stakeholder register Diagramming techniques
Cost management plan SWOT analysis
Schedule management plan Expert judgment
Quality management plan
Project documents
EEF: Risk attitudes, benchmarking, and published information: checklists, databases, studies.
OPA: Project files, process controls, risk statement templates, lessons learned.
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Risk register Risk probability and impact assessment Risk resister updates:
Risk category grouping
Project risk ranking
Watchlist
Probability estimates of project objectives
Trends of the above data during the project
Risk management plan Probability and impact matrix
Project scope statement Risk data quality assessment
OPA: similar project info and project studies, industry risk databases Risk categorization
Risk urgency assessment
Expert Judgment
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Risk register Data gathering and representation techniques: interviewing, probability distributions Risk resister updates:
List of prioritized, quantified risks
Contingency time and cost reserves
Project estimates: Time and Date vs. Confidence
Probability estimates of project objectives
Trends of the above data during the project
Risk management plan Quantitative risk analysis and modeling techniques: sensitivity analysis, EMV analysis/decision tree, modeling and simulation (e.g. monte carlo)
Cost management plan Expert judgment
Schedule management plan
OPA: similar project info and project studies, industry risk databases
Plan Risk Responses
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Risk register Strategies for negative risks or threats

Risk resister updates:
Residual risks
Secondary risks
Contingency plans
Risk response owners
Fallback plans
Risk triggers
Contracts
Reserves

Risk management plan Strategies for positive risks or opportunities Risk-related contract decisions
Contingent response strategies Project management plan updates
Project document updates
Plan Procurements
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Scope baseline Make-or-buy analysis Procurement management plan
Requirements documentation Expert judgment Procurement statements of work
Teaming aggreements Contract types Make-or-buy decisions
Risk register Procurement documents
Risk-related contract decisions Source selection criteria
Activity resource requirements Change requests
Project schedule
Activity cost estimates
Cost performance baseline
EEF: market, availability, suppliers, locale, industry T&Cs
OPA: purchasing policies, management systems, supplier system
Direct And Manage Project Execution
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Expert judgment Deliverables
Approved change requests Project management information system Work performance information
EEF: Infrastructure, personnel rules, stakeholder risk tolerances, project management information systems Change requests
OPA: Standardized work guidelines, communication requirements, defect management procedures, project files from previous projects Project management plan updates
Project document updates
Perform Quality Assurance
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control tools and techniques OPA updates
Quality metrics Quality audits Change requests
Work performance information Process analysis Project management plan updates
Quality control measurements Project document updates
Acquire Project Team
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Pre-assignment Project staff assignments
EEF: Org’s skill levels and structure, personnel policies, locale, Negotiation Resource calendars
OPA: Org’s standard policies, processes, and procedures Acquisition Project management plan updates
Virtual teams
Develop Project Team
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project staff assignments Interpersonal skills Team performance assessments
Project management plan Training EEF updates
Resource calendars Team-building activities
Ground rules
Co-location
Recognition and rewards
Manage Project Team
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project staff assignments Observations and conversation EEF updates
Project management plan Project performance appraisals OPA updates
Team performance assessments Conflict management Change requests
Performance reports Issue log Project management plan updates
OPA: bonus structures, certificates of appreciation, newsletters, perks Interpersonal skills
Distribute Information
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Communication methods: mostly push method, like email, memos, etc, but include meetings, teleconferences, online chat, etc. OPA updates
Performance reports Information distribution tools
OPA: information distribution guidelines and policies, lessons learned and historical project information
Manage Stakeholder Expectations
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Stakeholder register Communication methods OPA updates
Stakeholder management strategy Interpersonal skills Change requests
Project management plan Management skills Project management plan updates
Issue log Project document updates
Change log
OPA: org communication requirements, change control and issue management procedures
Conduct Procurements
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Bidder conferences Selected sellers
Procurement documents Proposal evaluation techniques Procurement contract awards
Source selection criteria Independent estimates Resource calendars
Qualified seller list Expert judgment Change requests
Seller proposals Advertising Project management plan updates
Project documents Internet search Project document updates
Make-or-buy decisions Procurement negotiations
Teaming aggreements
OPA: prospective/qualified seller lists, historical seller information
Monitor and Control Project Work
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Expert judgment Change requests
Performance reports Project management plan updates
EEF: Industry/Gov standards, stakeholder risk tolerances, project management information systems Project document updates
OPA: org communications requirements, financial controls procedures, defect management procedures, risk control/categories/matrices
Perform Integrated Change Control
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Expert judgment Change request status updates (approved change requests and denied change requests)
Work performance information Change control meetings Project management plan updates
Change requests Project document updates
EEF: project management information system such as a scheduling tool
OPA: change control procedures, process measurement database, project files like baselines, configuration management databases
Verify Scope
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Inspection Accepted deliverables
Requirements documentation Change requests
Requirements traceability matrix Project document updates
Validated deliverables
Control Scope
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Variance analysis Work performance measurements
Work performance information OPA updates
Requirements documentation Change requests
Requirements traceability matrix Project management plan updates
OPA: scope related policies, guidelines, procedures. Monitoring and reporting methods to be used. Project document updates
Control Schedule
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Performance reviews Work performance measurements
Project schedule Variance analysis OPA updates
Work performance information Project management software Change requests
OPA: Schedule control tools, related policies, guidelines, procedures. Monitoring and reporting methods to be used. Resource leveling Project management plan updates
What-if scenario analysis Project document updates
Adjusting leads and lags
Schedule compression
Scheduling tool
Control Costs
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Earned value management Work performance measurements
Project funding requirements Forecasting Budget forecasts
Work performance information To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI) Organization process assets updates
OPA: cost control-related policies procedures and guidelines. Cost control tools and monitoring / reporting methods to be used. Performance reviews Change requests
Variance analysis Project management plan updates
Project management software Project document updates
Perform Quality Control
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Cause and effect diagrams Quality control measurements
Quality metrics Control charts Validated changes
Quality checklists Flowcharting Validated deliverables
Work performance measurements Histogram OPA updates
Approved change requests Pareto chart Change requests
Deliverables Run chart Project management plan updates
OPA: quality standards and policies, standard work guidelines, and issue / defect reporting procedures Scatter diagram Project document updates
Statistical sampling
Inspection
Approved change requests review
Report Performance
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Variance analysis Performance reports
Work performance information Forecasting methods OPA updates
Work performance measurements Communication methods Change requests
Budget forecasts Reporting systems
OPA: report templates, measurement indicator definitions, organization’s variance limits
Monitor And Control Risks
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Risk register Risk reassessment Risk register updates
Project management plan Risk audits OPA updates: technical documentation and assumptions
Work performance information Variance and trend analysis Change requests
Performance reports Technical performance measurement Project management plan updates
Reserve analysis Project document updates
Status meetings
Administer Procurements
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Procurement documents Contract change control system Procurement documentation
Project management plan Procurement performance reviews OPA updates
Contract Inspections and audits Change requests
Performance reports Performance reporting Project management plan updates
Approved change requests Payment systems
Work performance information Claims administration
Records management system
Close Procurements
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Procurement audits Closed procurements
Procurement documentation Negotiated settlements OPA Updates
Records management system
Close Phase Or Project
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Project management plan Expert judgment Final product, service, or result transition
Accepted deliverables OPA updates
OPA: closure guidelines, audits, evaluations and other project docs

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